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Multiprocessor Operating System: Types, Examples, Advantages, Characteristics

Multiprocessor operating system allows the multiple processors, and these processors are connected with physical memory, computer buses, clocks, and peripheral devices. Main objective of using multiprocessor operating system is to consume high computing power and increase the execution speed of system.


Components of Multiprocessor Operating System


There are 4 essential components, which might be used within the Multiprocessor Operating System.

  • CPU
  • Input/Output Processor
  • Input/Output Devices
  • Memory Unit

CPU – CPU is successful to get right of entry to memories in addition to controlling the entire I/O responsibilities.


IOP – Theses types of  processors can get right of entry to direct memories, and every I/O processors ought to accountable for controlling all input and output responsibilities.


Input/Output Devices – These gadgets are used for placing the enter commands, and generating output after processing.


Memory Unit – Multiprocessor gadget uses the 2 sorts of reminiscence modules along with shared memory and allotted shared memory, and all resource are executed in real time by using real time operating system as well.


Types of Multiprocessor Operating System


Here, We will provide an explanation for distinctive kinds of multiprocessor running machine, and type of its list is executed into six kinds.


  • Symmetric Multiprocessor
  • Asymmetric Multiprocessor
  • Shared Memory Multiprocessor
  • Distributed Memory Multiprocessor
  • UMA Multiprocessor
  • NUMA Multiprocessor

Symmetric Multiprocessor


In this system, each processors have own identically reproduction of working machine, and they could make conversation in between each other. In which all processors are connected each different with peer to peer relationship nature, it means no grasp & slave relation.


Asymmetric Multiprocessor


In this device, every processor is allotted predefined duties, and grasp processor has electricity for controlling whole machine. In which, It use the grasp- slave relationship.


Shared Memory Multiprocessor


In this system, each CPU carries shareable not unusual reminiscence.


Distributed Memory Multiprocessor


In this machine, all varieties of processors is composed very own non-public reminiscence.


UMA Multiprocessor


UMA Multiprocessor stands for “Uniform Memory Access Multiprocessor”. In which, it permits to access all memory at the uniform speed price for all processors.


NUMA Multiprocessor


NUMA Multiprocessor stands for “Non Uniform Memory Access Multiprocessor”. In this device, it includes some areas of the reminiscence for getting access to at the faster charge and left parts of memory are applied for different obligations.


Advantages of Multiprocessor Operating System


There are list of several advantages of Multiprocessor operating machine together with


Great Reliability


If due to any motive, any one processor gets fails then don't worry because, complete machine will do paintings nicely. For instance – if multiprocessor has 6 processors and any person processor does no longer carry out nicely, at this level rest of them processors should duties for handling this gadget.


Improve Throughput


Enhancing the throughput of device, whole machine is advanced, if couples of processors paintings with getting collaboration.


Cost Effective System


Multiprocessor structures are cost effective examine to unmarried processor machine in long lifestyles because this gadget is capable to percentage all enter/output devices, power elements device, and facts garage middle. In multiprocessor, do not want to attach all peripheral terminals separately with every processor.


Parallel Processing


Multiprocessor O/S receives high performance due to parallel processing. In this machine, unmarried process is split into various identical small jobs, and executes them like as Parallel nature.


Disadvantages of Multiprocessor Operating System


  • Multiprocessor has complicated nature in both form consisting of H/W and S/W.
  • It is more high-priced because of its massive structure.
  • Multiprocessor running system has a frightening assignment for scheduling techniques because of its shareable nature.
  • Multiprocessor gadget needs large memory because of sharing its memory with other sources.
  • Its speed can get degrade due to fail anyone processor.
  • It has more time put off whilst processor receives message and take suitable motion.
  • It has big challenge related to skew and determinism.
  • It desires context switching which may be impacted its overall performance.

Characteristics of Multiprocessor Operating System



There are severa traits of Multiprocessor running gadget, give an explanation for underneath

  • The Multi-processor gadget lets in making communiqué in among more than one CPUs with their proportion reminiscence and input/output gadgets.
  • Multi-processor gadget can use unique styles of processor as per very own want, along with vital processing unit (CPU) or an input- output processor (IOP).
  • Multiprocessors are breaking up into more than one instruction move multiple facts stream (MIMD) structures.
  • Entire multi-processor gadget is managed by means of operating device, and it allows the conversation among all processors and I/O devices as well.
  • Multi-processor has a better reliability.
  • If, any processor receives fails due to any reason, then other processor can deal with all feature of defective processor.
  • Multiprocessor company presents many blessings for boosting the system performance.
  • Multiprocessing device has a optimize architecture due to put into effect parallel processing.
  • In multiprocessor use unique compiler, those are capable of perceive the parallelism in a person’s application in automation mode.
  • Main objective of the use of the compilers is to decide the all statistics dependency inside the entire application.
  • If, any program absolutely relies upon upon the facts, which might be created through other applications, then that information is accomplished first of all without getting any postpone.
  • If, any facts are accomplished in simultaneously, then different parts of the programs can use them.
  • Multiprocessors are classified with their memory control together with shared memory or tightly coupled multiprocessor.
  • Every processor is called loosely coupled machine due to the fact they contain the personal personal neighbourhood memory.

Examples of Multiprocessor Operating System


Examples for Symmetric Multiprocessor – Windows NT, Solaris, Digital UNIX, OS/2 & Linux.

Examples for Asymmetric Multiprocessor – SunOS Version four, IOS


Other Examples are



  • Intel Nehalem – Beckton, Westmere, Sandy Bridge
  • AMD Opteron – K10 (Barcelona, Magny Cours); Bulldozer
  • ARM Cortex A9, A15 MPCore
  • Oracle (Sun) UltraSpare T1, T2, T3, T4 (Niagara)